The members of this congress, sincerely
devoted, with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to his majesty's
person and government,inviolably attached to the present happy establishment of
the protestant succession,and with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the
present and impending misfortunes of the British colonies on this continent;
having considered as maturely as time will permit, the circumstances of the
saidcolonies, esteem it our indispensible duty to make the following
declarations of our humble opinion, respecting the most essential rights and
liberties of the colonists, and of the grievances under which they labour, by
reason of several late acts of parliament.
1. That his majesty's subjects in these
colonies, owe the same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain, that is owing
from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that
august body the parliament of Great Britain.
2. That his majesty's liege subjects in
these colonies are entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of his
natural born subjects, within the kingdom of Great Britain.
3. That it is inseparably essential to the
freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be
imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally, or by their
4. That the people of these colonies are
not, and, from their local circumstances, cannot be, represented in the House of
Commons in Great Britain.
5. That the only representatives of the
people of these colonies, are persons chosen therein by themselves; and that no
taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their
6. That all supplies to the crown being
free gifts of the people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the
principles and spirit of the British constitution, for the people of Great
Britain to grant to his majesty the property of the colonists.
7. That trial by jury, is the inherent and
invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies.
8. That the late act of parliament,
entitled, an act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other
duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America &c., by imposing
taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies, and the said act, and several other
acts, by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty beyond its
ancient limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of
9. That the duties imposed by several late
acts of parliament, from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies, will be
extremely burdensome and grievous; and from the scarcity of the specie, the
payment of them absolutely impracticable.
10. That as the profits of the trade of
these colonies ultimately center in Great Britain, to pay for the manufactures
which they are obliged to take from thence, they eventually contribute very
largely to all supplies granted there to the crown.
11. That the restrictions imposed by
several late acts of parliament on the trade of these colonies, will render them
unable to purchase the manufactures of Great Britain.
12. That the increase, prospoerity and
happiness of these colonies, depend on the full and free enjoyments of their
rights and liberties, and an intercourse with Great Britain mutually
affectionate and advantageous.
13. That it is the right of the British
subjects in these colonies, to petition the king, or either house of
Lastly, that it is the indispensible duty
of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns, to the mother country, and to
themselves, to endeavour by a loyal and dutiful address to his majesty, and
humble applications to both houses of parliament, to procure the repeal of the
act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other
acts of parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the admiralty is extended as
aforesaid, and of the other late acts for the restriction of American