TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE
The President of the United States of America and the First Consul of the
French Republic in the name of the French People desiring to remove all Source
of misunderstanding relative to objects of discussion mentioned in the Second
and fifth articles o f the Convention of the 8th Vendémiaire an 9/30 September
1800 relative to the rights claimed by the United States in virtue of the Treaty
concluded at Madrid the 27 of October 1795, between His Catholic Majesty &
the Said United States, & willing to Strengthen the union and friendship
which at the time of the Said Convention was happily reestablished between the
two nations have respectively named their Plenipotentiaries to wit The President
of the United States, by and with the advice and consent o f the Senate of the
Said States; Robert R. Livingston Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States
and James Monroe Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy extraordinary of the Said
States near the Government of the French Republic; And the First Consul in the
name of the French people, Citizen Francis Barbé Marbois Minister of the public
treasury who after having respectively exchanged their full powers have agreed
to the following Articles.
Whereas by the Article the third of the Treaty concluded at St Ildefonso the
9th Vendémiaire an 9/1st October 1800 between the First Consul of the French
Republic and his Catholic Majesty it was agreed as follows.
"His Catholic Majesty promises and engages on his part to cede to the French
Republic six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions and
Stipulations herein relative to his Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, the Colony
or Province of Louisiana with the Same extent that it now has in the hand of
Spain, & that it had when France possessed it; and Such as it Should be
after the Treaties subsequently entered into between Spain and other States."
And whereas in pursuance of the Treaty and particularly of the third article
the French Republic has an incontestible title to the domain and to the
possession of the said Territory--The First Consul of the French Republic
desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship doth
hereby cede to the United States in the name of the French Republic for ever and
in full Sovereignty the said territory with all its rights and appurtenances as
fully and in the Same manner as they have been acquired by the French Republic
in virtue of the above mentioned Treaty concluded with his Catholic Majesty.
In the cession made by the preceeding article are included the adjacent
Islands belonging to Louisiana all public lots and Squares, vacant lands and all
public buildings, fortifications, barracks and other edifices which are not
private property.--The Archives, papers & documents relative to the domain
and Sovereignty of Louisiana and its dependances will be left in the possession
of the Commissaries of the United States, and copies will be afterwards given in
due form to the Magistrates and Municipal officers of such of the said papers
and documents as may be necessary to them.
The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of
the United States and admitted as soon as possible according to the principles
of the federal Constitution to the enjoyment of all these rights, advantages and
immunities of citizens of the United States, and in the mean time they shall be
maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and
the Religion which they profess.
There Shall be Sent by the Government of France a Commissary to Louisiana to
the end that he do every act necessary as well to receive from the Officers of
his Catholic Majesty the Said country and its dependances in the name of the
French Republic if it has not been already done as to transmit it in the name of
the French Republic to the Commissary or agent of the United States.
Immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty by the President of
the United States and in case that of the first Consul's shall have been
previously obtained, the commissary of the French Republic shall remit all
military posts of New Orleans and other parts of the ceded territory to the
Commissary or Commissaries named by the President to take possession--the troops
whether of France or Spain who may be there shall cease to occupy any military
post from the time of taking possession and shall be embarked as soon as
possible in the course of three months after the ratification of this treaty.
The United States promise to execute Such treaties and articles as may have
been agreed between Spain and the tribes and nations of Indians until by mutual
consent of the United States and the said tribes or nations other Suitable
articles Shall have been agreed upon.
As it is reciprocally advantageous to the commerce of France and the United
States to encourage the communication of both nations for a limited time in the
country ceded by the present treaty until general arrangements relative to
commerce of both nations may be agreed on; it has been agreed between the
contracting parties that the French Ships coming directly from France or any of
her colonies loaded only with the produce and manufactures of France or her Said
Colonies; and the Ships of Spain coming directly from Spain or any of her
colonies loaded only with the produce or manufactures of Spain or her Colonies
shall be admitted during the Space of twelve years in the Port of New-Orleans
and in all other legal ports-of-entry within the ceded territory in the Same
manner as the Ships of the United States coming directly from France or Spain or
any of their Colonies without being Subject to any other or greater duty on
merchandize or other or greater tonnage than that paid by the citizens of the
During that Space of time above mentioned no other nation Shall have a right
to the Same privileges in the Ports of the ceded territory--the twelve years
Shall commence three months after the exchange of ratifications if it Shall take
place in France or three months after it Shall have been notified at Paris to
the French Government if it Shall take place in the United States; It is however
well understood that the object of the above article is to favour the
manufactures, Commerce, freight and navigation of France and of Spain So far as
relates to the importations that the French and Spanish Shall make into the Said
Ports of the United States without in any Sort affecting the regulations that
the United States may make concerning the exportation of the produce and
merchandize of the United States, or any right they may have to make Such
In future and for ever after the expiration of the twelve years, the Ships of
France shall be treated upon the footing of the most favoured nations in the
ports above mentioned.
The particular Convention Signed this day by the respective Ministers, having
for its object to provide for the payment of debts due to the Citizens of the
United States by the French Republic prior to the 30th Sept. 1800 (8th
Vendémiaire an 9) is approved and to have its execution in the Same manner as if
it had been inserted in this present treaty, and it Shall be ratified in the
same form and in the Same time So that the one Shall not be ratified distinct
from the other.
Another particular Convention Signed at the Same date as the present treaty
relative to a definitive rule between the contracting parties is in the like
manner approved and will be ratified in the Same form, and in the Same time and
The present treaty Shall be ratified in good and due form and the
ratifications Shall be exchanged in the Space of Six months after the date of
the Signature by the Ministers Plenipotentiary or Sooner if possible.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have Signed these articles
in the French and English languages; declaring nevertheless that the present
Treaty was originally agreed to in the French language; and have thereunto
affixed their Seals.
Done at Paris the tenth day of Floreal in the eleventh year of the French
Republic; and the 30th of April 1803.
Barbé Marbois [seal]
Rob. R. Livingston [seal]
Jas. Monroe [seal]