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History's Happenings for October 10

Chinese Monarchy Ends; Republic Founded

The rush to republicanism in China had its modern roots in the Boxer rebellion of 1900, when troops from several western nations, including the U.S., marched to the relief of their besieged legations in the Chinese capital. The crushing of the anti-foreign uprising signaled to the ruling Manchu dynasty that its days of absolutist glory were over. In 1902, it began internal reform with an aim to forming a constitutional government on the Japanese model.

But for the growing forces of revolution under western-educated Sun Yat-sen, the change was not enough and, negotiating with the superior imperial forces sent against him, he was able to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republican government on October 10, 1911.

The last Manchu emperor, 6-year-old P'u-Yi (officially Hsüan-T'ung), managed to hold onto his empty title until his abdication in 1912, and was allowed to live in the imperial residence in the Forbidden City until 1924, when he was unceremoniously tossed out. It was not P'u-Yi's last empty title, as he went on to become puppet emperor of Manchukuo -- Manchuria, land of his forebears -- after it was seized by the Japanese in 1931.

Meanwhile, the Chinese republic, suffering continual strife and violence from power-seeking warlords, the invading Japanese, and the Communists, finally yielded to the Reds in 1949. Like the last emperor, the last republican leader -- Chiang Kai-shek -- was ousted from the country and formed his government on the nearby island of Taiwan. Red China has never accepted the legitimacy of that prosperous offshore republic.

First Classes At U.S. Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy was founded as the Naval School in 1845 by then-Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft. Its first classes began on October 10.

Originally situated at Annapolis, MD, it was temporarily moved to Rhode Island during the Civil War, but has resided again at its well-known Annapolis home since that time.

For its first century-plus, the Academy was for men only. It began accepting female candidates in 1976. Today the Academy accepts approximately 1200 new Midshipmen each year, all by official appointment.

Graduates of the Academy are commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, receive science degrees in a variety of engineering and science disciplines, and are expected to serve at least six years on active duty.

VP Agnew Resigns Under Fire

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Congress Grants War Authority to Bush

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